The Center's vision is to be a leading centre of excellence in development training, communication and consultancy services. As an extension arm of Kasetsart University its international service mission includes building and maintaining quality services to support organizations in their efforts for sustainable development in social and economic sectors.
The evolution of the participatory development communication school involved collaboration between First World and Third World development communication organizations. The World Bank actively promotes this field through its Development Communication division and published the Development Communication Sourcebook in , a resource addressing the history, concepts and practical applications of this discipline. The difference seems to be a matter of semantics and not ideology since the end goals of these global organizations are almost identical to each other.
Communication for Development C4D goes beyond providing information. It involves understanding people, their beliefs and values, the social and cultural norms that shape their lives. It includes engaging communities and listening to adults and children as they identify problems, propose solutions and act upon them. Communication for development is seen as a two-way process for sharing ideas and knowledge using a range of communication tools and approaches that empower individuals and communities to take actions to improve their lives.
World Bank defines Development Communication "as an interdisciplinary field, is based on empirical research that helps to build consensus while it facilitates the sharing of knowledge to achieve a positive change in the development initiative. It is not only about effective dissemination of information but also about using empirical research and two-way communications among stakeholders".
Development Communication division, the World Bank. One of the first examples of development communication was Farm Radio Forums in Canada. From to farmers met weekly to listen to radio programs, supplemented by printed materials and prepared questions to encourage discussion. Later the Forums dealt with social and economic issues. This model of adult education or distance education was later adopted in India and Ghana. It was a forerunner of the school-on-air SOA concept that provided informal education for farmers.
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Established in , Global South Development Magazine has been a recent example of development communication in practice. Instructional television was used in El Salvador during the s to improve primary education. One problem was a lack of trained teachers. Teaching materials were improved to make them more relevant. More children attended school and graduation rates increased. It mainly used interpersonal communication in women's clubs.
Oryu Li's success did not recur in all villages. The initial effort had the advantage of a remarkable local leader and visits from the provincial governor. This was an attempt to deal with chronic malnourishment among children. The project used cooking demonstrations, posters and broadcasts on local commercial radio stations.
Some people tried soybeans but the outcome of the project was unclear. The books were in Albanian and featured Superman and Wonder Woman. The aim was to teach children what to do when they find an unexploded land mine left over from Kosovo's civil war. The comic books instruct children not to touch and not to move, but instead to call an adult for help. JHR works directly with journalists, providing monthly workshops, student sessions, on the job training and additional programs on a country by country basis.
Food (in)security, famine and drought in Africa
Television and radio played a complementary role in the dissemination of literacy training programs. Live coverage of literacy worker and students was used to dramatise and this was reinforced on radio and in newspapers. Development communication policy covers formal and informal processes where interests are defined, expressed and negotiated by actors with different levels of power and with the goal of influencing policy decisions.
Alexander G. Flor, Ph. Development communication is intended to build consensus and facilitate knowledge sharing to achieve positive change in development initiatives. It disseminates information and employs empirical research, two-way communication and dialogue among stakeholders. It is a management tool to help assess socio-political risks and opportunities. By using communication to bridge differences and take action towards change, development communication can lead to successful and sustainable results.
Development communication is a response to historic, social and economic factors that limit access to information and citizen participation. These include poverty and unemployment, limited access to basic services, remote settlement patterns, lack of access to technology, lack of information, inadequate health services, lack of education and skills and lack of infrastructure.
FAO asserted that communication can play a decisive role in promoting human development. Democracy, decentralization and the market economy empower individuals and communities to control their own destinies. Stimulating awareness, participation, and capabilities are vital.
Policies must encourage effective planning and implementation of communication programs. Lee advocated that communication policies and practices require joint action among leaders in social, economic, scientific, educational and foreign affairs and that success requires constant contact and consultation with communicators and citizens. Attended by delegates from ten countries, it drew up basic recommendations including the organization of national development communication councils by each country's governmental, educational and media groups.
According to Habermann and De Fontgalland, the difficulties in the adoption of a viable development communication policy have to be simultaneously analyzed horizontally and vertically. Horizontally government agencies, semi-governmental offices e. Vertically, information must flow in both directions between the population base and decision-making bodies. This involves local and supra-local administrations that are active in handing out directives and reporting back to the government.
In Quebral stressed the importance of equally recognizing systematic practice along with formal research as a legitimate basis for decisions. According to her, research must precede and become the foundation of policy. The design and implementation of policies is becoming more complex, and the number and type of actors involved in policy implementation more diverse;  hence, the policy process is evolving towards multi-actor and multi-goal situations.
Where several groups of stakeholders are involved in the policy process, a stakeholder analysis can provide a useful resource. Stakeholder analysis can help analyze the behavior, intentions, interrelations, agendas, interests and the resources of stakeholders in the policy processes. Hannan and Freeman include groups or individual who can affect or be affected by the achievement of the organization's objectives, while others exclude those who cannot influence the outcome.
For instance, Brugha and Varvasovszky defined stakeholder as "individuals, groups, and organizations who have an interest stake and the potential to influence the actions and aims of an organization, project, or policy direction.
Food (in)security, famine and drought in Africa | African Studies Centre Leiden
Education sector — Conducts research that underlies subsequent policies. Communication industry — Influences communication policies. Private sector — Avoid policies that limit content and to protect themselves from opponents. Religious sector — Traditionally opposes policies that allow obscenity, violence and profanity to be distributed.
Foreign interests — e. Consumers — Traditionally not consulted, but more recently claiming to protect the public interest. The United Nations has recognised the importance of "the need to support two-way communication systems that enable dialogue and that allow communities to express their aspirations and concerns and participate in decisions Cuilenburg and McQuail identify three main phases of communications policy-making: .
Public Service Media Policy — —After the Second World War, policy was dominated by sociopolitical rather than economic and national strategic concerns. This phase began after the Second World War. Policy expanded from addressing technical matters to the content of communications and to cover the traditional press.
Regulation of mass media became increasingly linked to telecommunications regulation. Globalization and the permeability of national frontiers by multinational media limited the impact of policy in most countries. Development communication policy as a field experienced persistent conflict.
Hamelink and Nordenstreng called for multistakeholder participation in information and communications technology ICT governance and for formal and informal policy development mechanisms to enable state and non-state actors to shape the media and communication industries. Manyozo advocated a rethinking of communication for development policies, perceiving a failure by communication policy makers to identify funding institutions that encourage cultural imperialism and unequal power relations between Western and local organizations. He attributed this to the absence in communication policy debates of a political economy discourse.
Development communication and the policy sciences provide a distinct role of development communication that is apart from traditional mass communication, its purposive nature Flor, Flor argues the importance of application of knowledge in social sciences where most of policy principles are drawn from.
In the conduct of developmental activities, the role of communication is critical as it influences participation of individuals given that relevant information is well-disseminated. For instance, communication media are critical in creating awareness, generating public interest and demand, and placing the issue on the public agenda and building social support Servaes, Development communication policy science take off from development theory that which it says that policy recommendation becomes an engine to the process of social change  Servaes, The concept of development communication policy science has reference to the following: a Diffusion model which enunciates that 'that the role of communication was 1 to transfer technological innovations from development agencies to their clients, and 2 to create an appetite for change through raising a 'climate for modernization' among the members of the public'.
A typology of Participation in Development Initiatives illustrates a participation ladder Mefalopulos, starting from the lowest form which is merely a form of token participation, to the highest form, where local stakeholders share equal weight in decision making with external stakeholders. The participation ladder consists of the following: a Passive participation.
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Stakeholders participate by being informed about what is going to happen or has already happened. Because their input is not limited to meetings, it can be provided at different points in time. Stakeholders take part in discussions and analysis of pre-determined objectives set by the project. Functional participation implies the use of horizontal communication among stakeholders.
Stakeholders are willing and able to be part of the process and participate in joint analysis, which leads to joint decision making about what should be achieved and how. While the role of outsiders is that of equal partners in the initiative, local stakeholders are equal partners with a decisive say in decisions concerning their lives. UNESCO posits that in order to effect positive developmental change, there is a need to form people and processes that facilitate the creation of knowledge.
For development to happen, a two-way horizontal model which allow direct participation of those most affected by the development issue s can be adopted. In this model, the stakeholder's participation are in a form of defining and implementing solutions and identifying development directions. Engaging in dialogue with stakeholders for purposes of understanding their perceptions, perspectives, values, attitudes and practices are essential inputs to the design and implementation of development initiatives.
Development communication policy science is a thriving and a contemporary field in social sciences.