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Folk costumes. Clothing identified with a culture. Afghanistan Pakol Chapan Deel Paranja. Dirndl Lederhosen Poffer Poland Tracht. Tignon Western wear Bolo tie Chaps. Categories : Turkmenistan culture Tajikistani culture Uzbekistani culture Arabic clothing Middle Eastern clothing Islamic male clothing.

Private memoirs of what passed in the Temple from the imprisonment of the Royal Family to the death of the Dauphin, by Madame Royale, Duchess of Angouleme.


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With historical and biographical illustrations by the translator [the Right Hon. It is one of the world's largest research libraries holding over million items in all known languages and formats: books, journals, newspapers, sound recordings, patents, maps, stamps, prints and much more. Its collections include around 14 million books, along with substantial additional collections of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as BC.

This collection includes works chronicling the development of Western civilisation to the modern age. Highlights include the development of language, political and educational systems, philosophy, science, and the arts. The following years were marked by the mass anti-Soviet basmachi guerrilla war. In the Fergana valley alone, about , men died fighting Soviet armies in The formation of the USSR in December was accompanied by unification of the socialist state system. As a result of ethnic demarcation in Central Asia, five new republics were created in , including the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic.

Contrary to all the propaganda on the voluntary choice made by the Uzbek people, the nation never received sovereign rights and in fact was forced into the humble position of another Soviet dependency. The Soviet era was characterised by both positive and negative developments in Uzbek economy and society. The ill-designed Soviet reform policy led to a disastrous campaign for forced collectivisation, which was meant to crown the plan to nationalise industry and agriculture totally.

During the campaign over 60, Uzbek peasants were subjected to repressions. Collectivisation decimated the rural economy; production of livestock, cereals and other items countrywide dropped so drastically that famine struck several vast areas, including Uzbekistan. Agriculture gradually revived over the next decades, when the input supply and technical capacity of government-run farms were strengthened.

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Nevertheless, the kolkhoz collective farm system of land use and command management remained insuperable impediments to better performance. The situation was as difficult in industry. In the course of "socialist industrialisation" proclaimed in , palpable progress was made in the effort to convert Uzbekistan from a purely agrarian society into an agrarian-industrial one. Towards , 1, industrial enterprises were launched in the country.

However, much like the Tsarist government, the Soviets encouraged the development of industries that were able to provide the central regions of the USSR with raw materials. As a result, Uzbekistan essentially remained a supply base with little value-added capacity. The Soviet impact on cultural life in Uzbekistan was ambiguous. The major achievements of the Soviet period included raising the educational level of the population, creating an extensive network of colleges and universities, and making impressive advances in science, the arts and literature.

But this overall progress was darkened by political purges by the totalitarian regime, which took a heavy toll on the intellectual potential of Uzbek society. Political persecution of educated people and clergy in Uzbekistan continued into the s. On the whole, from to nearly , people were victimised for political reasons, and 13, of them were shot. In the mids the new leadership of the Soviet Union publicly condemned the mass repressions and rehabilitated many innocent victims.

However, these moves were not followed up with systematic changes to the regime. In the final decades of Soviet rule important achievements in certain fields were counterbalanced by an overall tendency towards stagnation in social development and the economy. Thus, the rise of agricultural production and government measures to take full advantage of Soviet technological breakthroughs resulted in better income levels and living conditions for the population in Uzbekistan as compared with the pre-Soviet past.

However, at the beginning of the s the pace of economic development throughout the USSR dropped to a level which indicated the final crisis of the socialist economic system.

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The treatment of Uzbekistan by the centre as a supply base for the Union and its lop-sided economic development occasioned severe stagnation in all sectors. Serious problems were encountered in public health and housing. Hope of overcoming the systemic crisis appeared with Perestroika, an ill-fated attempt at restructuring the Soviet state which was proclaimed by Mikhail Gorbachev in April Fearful of separatist tendencies, the Union government engineered the notorious "Cotton Case", allegedly aimed at fighting corruption among high Uzbek officials.

More than 25, managers and officials were arrested in Uzbekistan during this full-scale campaign, and persecution began of "nationalism", that is, any display of Uzbek traditions and culture. An unwritten government policy was launched to restrict the use of the Uzbek language. A new policy consistent with national interests began to form when Islam Karimov took the lead in the national government. Presidential decrees, acts, resolutions of the Supreme Council and the government, and finally, the Declaration of Independence were all designed to secure political and economic independence and the national revival of Uzbekistan.

In Uzbek was made the official language of the new state, and a package of measures was drafted to address the most urgent economic problems, such as the monoculture of cotton, and to assist revival of Uzbek culture.

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On 31 August, the 6th Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Council declared the political independence of the country, which was officially named the Republic of Uzbekistan. Overwhelming popular support for independence and the government line was expressed during presidential elections and a referendum on political sovereignty 29 December From September to July the Republic of Uzbekistan was officially recognised by states.

On 2 March the country joined the United Nations. The conditions under which the young nation started out were difficult.

Movement as Protest: How Dance Functions as a Medium for Social Change

The disruption of former economic ties brought about a setback to production in all sectors, high unemployment levels and worsening living standards. Reality called for radical reforms in both the social structure and the economy, and President Karimov came up with the concept of the "Uzbek model" for national revival and reform. The foundation for transition from the socialist formation to market economy was laid by the Constitution which was adopted on 8 December The new Uzbek political system relies on state institutions, which are modelled on recognised international patterns. The legislature consists of the national Parliament, Oliy Majlis, and local representative bodies, Kengashes.

The mainstay of the executive is the restored traditional institution of khakims.

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Uzbekistan selected presidential rule, which combines the powers of a president as Head of State and those of the executive. The role of the state itself changed radically, and it now acts as the main engine and motivating body for reform activities. Close attention is being paid to the formulation of a national development strategy for the 21st century, which is intended to promote liberalisation in the economy and social life.

The cultural revival of the nation envisages a return to the roots of the nation's spirituality, enriched with the achievements of world culture. A crucial task is to develop a new national ideology centred around the concept of independence.


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The government has devoted a great deal of effort to assisting the restoration of Islam and other confessions in Uzbekistan. However, it is appreciated that, away from the mainstream, there are a variety of informal movements in the modern Muslim world which might exploit Islamic teaching for political purposes. Therefore, certain provisions were made to prevent the spread of destructive religious movements. Bearing in mind that Uzbekistan has a complex ethnic composition, the government is seeking to ensure equal development opportunities for all ethnic groups residing in the country.

Efforts are under way to modernise the national system of education and research.

Modern education will embody and promote the values of humanism, democracy, consistent and scientific secular teaching, national and international cultures, and the equality of all regardless of ethnicity or religion. After independence Uzbekistan selected a new path for economic development, which envisages de-ideologising the economy, a role for the state as the main engine of reform during the period of transition, socially orientated economic policies, and step-by-step market reforms.

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Since independence, a total of 3, joint ventures have been opened in Uzbekistan. These economic successes have been accompanied by an upsurge in the social sector. An important achievement of the government social policies of recent years is that they have secured a guaranteed, albeit modest, living standard for the population. The country has adopted a unique system of social insurance based on local self-government bodies, makhallya, which have been put in charge of identifying the needy and providing targeted financial support to them. Although a number of serious problems persist in public health, significant improvements have taken place in this sector since independence.

Life expectancy has increased from 71 years in to 73 years at present. Thus, despite the hard starting conditions, Uzbekistan has risen into the leading positions in the CIS and has become an active member of the international community. Its political, social and economic image has changed completely during the years of independence. Unlike some other post-Soviet republics, Uzbekistan enjoys social and political stability and positive dynamics in socio-economic development.

Tajikistan

The measurable progress made by the nation does not mean, however, that all the existing problems have been duly addressed, and a lot remains to be done to improve the living standards of the people. But, importantly, we can now say that the most crucial phase of transition has been left behind. The achievements of the past years give us cause to hope for better; we have a clear vision of the future goals, and our plans are definite and feasible.

As a result of realization by the government and bodies of state power at the local levels of policy measures on implementing the most important priorities of social-economic development of the country defined by President, accomplishment of purposeful policy programs of development, technical and technological renewal of strategic sectors of economy , the sustainable dynamics of growth of main indicators of social and economic development of Uzbekistan has been ensured in the past several years.


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  6. Maintaining macroeconomic stability, sustainable and balanced rates of economic growth. The growth in industrial production made up The state budget has been executed with 1. Real money income per capita grew by The main factors of economic growth have been as follows: dynamic export activity which led to a Continuation of structural changes, modernization and renewal of leading sectors of economy. Implementation of Investment Program during 9 months this year became an important factor of accomplishing structural changes, modernization and renewal of leading sectors of economy.

    As a part of measures on developing production infrastructure that ensure creation of favorable conditions for developing the new productions, Uzbekistan took the steps aimed at road construction and reconstruction, development of power supply lines and electrification of railroads, water and gas supply systems.